Title: Tobacco industrial architecture in peninsular Spain: drying rooms and factories. (2015)
- Author(s): Margarita de Luxan Garcia de Diego and Javier Fco. Raposo Grau.
- Director(s): Tamar Award Stop.
- Summary: The industrial architecture of tobacco in Spain is represented by two types of constructions, which correspond to the two phases in which the tobacco production process is divided: the dryers (bioclimatic architecture where drying takes place), and (centres where tobacco is made from dryers). The factories were spread throughout the Spanish territory, preferably occupying the coastal places, although there are cases in which their location was due to political reasons. These buildings, mostly included in the historic centres of cities, have changed their use, and the old tobacco factories have mostly been transformed into cultural centres, or social and representative centers. The thesis arises from the analysis of the constructive characteristics of the industrial architecture of tobacco: of dryers and factories, as it is a typology with sufficient entity and an example of bioclimatic architecture of production in the case of drying boxes, and for being adapted to other uses in the case of factories. The production architecture uses a language in line with the advances of industrialization, anticipating materials and structures, and condensing into a specific typology the complex relationships established between product, men and space. These buildings had an extensive implementation in the territory, and are characterized by a series of technological, architectural, sociological and landscape values, which make them a first-magnitude document to know: evolution and implementation of the construction techniques (materials and structures), the processes of typological innovation and the economic structure and technical procedures used. The territory in which they are inserted constitutes their territorial context, so it would not be appropriate to consider these buildings as isolated elements, without analyzing the relationship with the environment in which they were generated. For this reason, the environmental hygrothermal conditions of the dryers are analyzed to compare them with those of human comfort and establish compatible relationships and parameters. The examples analyzed for dryers are all factory. The use of brick as the main module for the elaboration of a building, implies the consideration of a “zero degree” of the entire construction and compositional apparatus of the architecture. Leaving the brick seen, involves making explicit all the cumulative processes. This minimal element allows for hugely open, but not absolutely random, possibilities that define your own combinatorial logic. The requirement of sincerity, characteristic of industrial architecture, in the exhibition of materials, exhibiting them in their own nature and in the real way of being used, is evident in this type of construction. A permeability study is carried out on the facades of the dryers, to determine the degree of ventilation and its relationship to the orientation, the lattice pattern used and the total volume. This specific climate conditioning system can serve as a resource for other constructions, so the construction and formal system of dryers could be moved to other uses, from a double slope: Architecture for climate adaptation environment. Architecture as a generator of specific climatic conditions, inside. The usefulness of the dryers is fundamentally: to provide shade, ventilation and a covered space, but permeable in its facades. The industrial architecture must be recognized within the heritage complex, due to its own characteristics that allow its differentiation from the rest of the architecture. Knowing the production structure allows to analyze correctly these constructions, since the initial program is basic to understand the organization of the interior space. The factories were not located near the tobacco production areas, except in two cases: Cadiz and Palazuelo, where there are drying and tobacco leaf growing fields in nearby areas. The main cause of this separation is that the process of obtaining tobacco is a process divided into two main phases: primary process and secondary process. In the primary process the tobacco leaf is dried in the dryers, where the climate is decisive, but only in the case of drying tobacco in the air. In the secondary process however, tobacco arrives previously in the factories, so it does not influence the climate in this part of the process. This reason determines that in the climatic areas where the study is focused, there are areas where there are factory and dryers and others where only the factory exists, or only dryers. The location of the factories met very different reasons, the most important were: geographical, strategic, and political. In most factories the choice of the city of site was linked to the reception of the raw material, which was mainly done by sea, or aquatic (the case of Seville), and by land, using the railway as a means of transport. Only two cases, of the old factories, correspond to political reasons, are the only two that are not on the coast: Madrid and Logroño. Madrid was built by political centrality, and because geographically it occupied the central point of all land communications by road and rail. Many of the factories were located close to the railway stations. Logroño’s, however, attended to political reasons. Finally, a comparative study is carried out of the factories in Seville, Madrid and San Sebastian. The reasons justifying this choice are: – Seville was historically the first and most important factory. – The one in Madrid was the most important at the administrative level, the headquarters of Tabacalera was installed in the capital, and after that of Seville, it was the one that served as a model to the rest of the factories. – San Sebastian was the largest in the North. The analyses that have been carried out are: volume and surfaces of patios, roof surfaces, permeability or gaps in facades, orientation and sun of courtyards, interior spatial distribution and organization, and evolution of uses. We can see that in most of these factories there has been a transformation in use, going from industrial buildings to cultural buildings. These constructions can be considered as adaptable infrastructures, as they are useful, sustainable and functional.
The Spanish industrial architecture of tobacco is represented by two construction types that correspond to the two phases of tobacco production: the drying sheds (bioclimatic constructions where the drying process takes place) and factories (centres where tobacco is processed after the drying process). The factories were distributed throughout the Spanish territory, preferably occupying coastal locations, although some of them were located elsewhere following political reasons. Most of the buildings inside city centres have suffered changes in their use, becoming cultural, social or representative centers. This thesis attempts the analysis of the constructive systems employed in tobacco industrial architecture, from drying sheds to factories. The drying sheds are an example of bioclimatic industrial architecture. The factories are a typology that have successfully adapted to new uses. Industrial architecture uses a language that follows the advances in industrialization, anticipating new materials and structures, and merging the complex relationships established among products, human beings, space and locations. These buildings were promoted extensively in the country. They are characterized by technological architectural sociological and landscaping innovations. They are considered as important examples of the evolution and the implementation of construction techniques (building materials and structures). They are also considered as examples of innovation in the building typology, in their economic structure and in the technologies that they have applied. The settings in which the drying sheds are placed have an important influence in them. They cannot be considered as isolated elements. Instead, there is a close relationship drying between sheds and the surroundings in which they are located. Drying sheds’ hygrotermal and environmental conditions are analyzed in this thesis to compare them with the values of human comfort and find suitable relationships and parameters. All the drying sheds that have been analyzed are constructed with brick. This implies a consideration of “zero degree” for both the construction and the composition of the architectural process. The detailing – making all the accumulative processes explicit as the brick walls are left exposed. This minimal component allows a wide range of options that are never random but based on the logic of the way in which it is combined. The “sincerity” in the exposition of material, displaying them in their very nature and showing how they are really used, is a basic characteristic of industrial architecture, and it is even more expressive in these types of buildings. The walls of the drying sheds undergo a permeability assessment in order to determine the degree of ventilation and orientation, the lattice pattern used and the overall volume. This specific conditioning system can serve as a resource for other buildings, and consequently, it could be transferred to other uses within a two-pronged approach: -Climatically adapted architecture that takes into account the surroundings. -Architecture as a generator of specific climatic conditions indoors. Drying sheds’ main purposes / aims deal with how to provide shade, ventilation and a covered space as well as permeability. The industrial architecture must be recognized as historical valuable buildings due to its intrinsic and distinctive characteristics. Knowing the productive structure, allow us to make a proper analysis of these buildings, since the basic aim, is to understand the spatial organization indoors. Factories did not come close to the tobacco production, with the exception of Cadiz and Palazuelo, where there are sheds and tobaccolands nearby. The main reason for this separation is that the process of obtaining tobacco has two processes: the primary process and the secondary process. In the primary process tobacco leaves are left to dry. In the secondary process, previously manufactured tobacco allocated in the factories where the weather conditions are not important. This fact determines that in the climate areas where this study such place there are some cases in which we can find both factories and drying sheds, and where there are either factories or drying sheds only. The location of these factories met various demands, being the most outstanding the ones related to geographic, strategic and political reasons. In most factories the choice of its location was often linked to the incoming of raw goods, mainly delivered through waterways –it is the case of Seville,) and by land, using railways. The location of the factories was linked to political reasons in only two cases Madrid and Logroño, which are the only ones that are not placed near the coast. The one in Madrid was built due to its political centrality and because geographically speaking, it was the reference landmark of means of land and rail transports. Many factories, in fact, were settled nearby rail stations. For the factory in Logroño, only political reasons were taken into consideration. I should like to close by undertaking a comparative study of factories in Seville, Madrid and San Sebastian. There are a number of reasons to substantiate this choice: -The factory in Seville was historically speaking the first that was built and the most important one. -The factory in Madrid was the most important one administratively. This factory was the headquarters as well as being, after Seville, the one which provided a model for other factories. -The factory in San Sebastian is the biggest in the North of Spain. The analysis carried out are related to the volume of the buildings and the surface areas of the courtyards, the surface of the roofs, the permeability of the walls and the openings of the fa’ade, the orientation and the sun exposure, the indoor spatial distribution and organization and evolution of the uses (formerly and currently) I note that in most of these factories there has been a change in the use of the buildings, from industrial cultural purposes. These buildings can be considered as adaptable infrastructures based on a combination of architectural practicability, sustainability and functionality.
- Link: http://oa.upm.es/38794/